Role of Progesterone in Inducing Menstruation


Progesterone is a sex hormone present only in females. It is primarily produced in the ovaries following ovulation each month, and it is a vital aspect of the menstrual cycle and pregnancy maintenance. In this essay, I addressed progesterone and how it causes menstruation.

Menstruation Caused by Progesterone

Progesterone helps regulate your menstrual cycle, but its primary role is to prepare your uterus for pregnancy. Each month, once you ovulate, progesterone helps thicken the uterine lining in preparation for a fertilized egg. If no fertilized egg is present, progesterone levels decline, and menstruation begins.

Pregnancy and Progesterone

When a fertilized egg implants in the uterine wall, progesterone helps maintain the uterine lining during pregnancy, breast development, and lactation. It boosts the actions of another female hormone, estrogen, and interacts with testosterone, a precursor to adrenal hormones. Men create a small quantity of progesterone to help with sperm production.

Although low progesterone levels cause menstruation, too much and consistently low progesterone levels are harmful. Progesterone is vital during the childbearing years. If you don’t have enough progesterone, you can have trouble getting or staying pregnant.

After one of your ovaries delivers an egg, your progesterone levels should rise. Progesterone promotes uterine thickening in preparation for the entrance of a fertilized egg. If the egg is not thick enough, it will not implant.

Low progesterone symptoms in non-pregnant women include:

  • Headaches or migraines
  • Mood swings, such as anxiety or despair 
  • Abnormalities in the menstrual cycle

In women who are not pregnant, low progesterone levels can induce irregular uterine bleeding. Periods that are irregular or non-existent may suggest that the ovaries are not working correctly and that progesterone levels are low. You’ll still need progesterone to keep your uterus working until your baby is born if you get pregnant. Progesterone levels in your body will rise, causing specific pregnancy symptoms such as breast tenderness and nausea. If your progesterone levels are too low, your uterus may be unable to carry the baby to term.

Spotting and miscarriage are both signs of low progesterone levels during pregnancy.

Low progesterone levels may indicate an ectopic pregnancy. As a result, miscarriage or fetal death may occur.

In the absence of progesterone, estrogen may take over as the primary hormone. This can cause symptoms such as:

  • Weight gain 
  • Sexual desire reduction  
  • Mood swings
  • Depression 
  • PMS, irregular menstrual cycle, and heavy bleeding 
  • Fibrocystic breasts 
  • Tender breasts  
  • Fibroids 
  • Gallbladder problems


You may not have any signs of low progesterone and do not need treatment. On the other hand, hormone therapy may be advantageous if you’re trying to conceive. Hormone therapy increases progesterone levels and may aid in the uterine lining thickness, potentially increasing your chances of having a healthy pregnancy and carrying it to term.

Hormone therapy can aid in the management of menstrual irregularities and abnormal bleeding. Estrogen and progesterone are typically used in hormone therapy for severe menopausal symptoms. Women who use estrogen without progesterone are more prone to develop endometrial cancer.

Treatment options for progesterone supplements include:

  1. Creams and gels that can be used topically or vaginally suppositories frequently treat low progesterone levels, leading to reproductive difficulties.
  2. Oral medications (either estrogen alone or a combination of estrogen and progesterone) may help relieve symptoms such as:
  • Sweating at night  
  • Hot flashes  
  • Vaginal dryness

Progesterone has been demonstrated to improve mood in women. Oral progesterone may have a calming effect, making it easier to sleep.

 Hormone replacement therapy may increase your chances of:

  • Stroke and heart attack 
  •  Blood clots 
  • Gallbladder difficulties
  • Gallbladder problems afflict certain types of breast cancer.

Your doctor will most likely advise you against hormone therapy if you have a history.

  • Breast cancer
  • Liver disease 
  • Endometrial cancer 
  • Stroke 
  • Blood clots

Natural treatments for low progesterone levels include:

  • Increasing your vitamins B and C intake, which are necessary for progesterone maintenance.
  • Eating more zinc-rich foods, such as shellfish, reduces stress because stress causes your body to produce cortisol rather than progesterone.

Progesterone is not provided to women suffering menopausal symptoms due to hormonal imbalance. This is because menopausal symptoms are caused mainly by low estrogen levels.

Hormone replacement therapy does have some risks, which you should discuss with your doctor. Prescription medications that are meant to appear exactly like your body’s naturally occurring hormones are known as “bioidentical hormones.” While these appear to be more favorable, they carry the same risks as other prescription formulations. Suppose you are having problems with your menstruation. In that case, you should see a gynecologist, who will be able to tell you whether it is due to a hormonal imbalance or anything else. Marham can help you schedule an appointment with the Best Female Specialty Doctor in Islamabad.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

1- Is progesterone capable of causing menstruation?

When progesterone levels fall, the uterus sheds its lining, menstruation. When the decline happens too soon, the cycles become irregular, and additional symptoms (headaches, mood changes, decreased libido, weight gain, and so on) may follow.

2- What is the role of progesterone in the onset of menstruation?

“Day 1” refers to the first day of menstruation. If you have your period regularly and your cycles last 27-30 days, start taking progesterone on the 14th day after your flow starts and continue for 14 days, or until cycle day 27.

3- When does menstruation occur after using progesterone?

Without fertilization, the corpus luteum begins to deteriorate between 9 and 11 days after ovulation, decreasing estrogen and progesterone levels and menstruation. The luteal phase typically lasts 14 days; however, it can last anywhere from 9 and 16 days.